Rare Flora and Fauna in Nepal: A Treasure Trove of Biodiversity

  • Oct 6, 2023
  • Prathana

Nepal, despite its small size, offers an exceptional destination for naturalists eager to explore one of the most diverse collections of flora and fauna on the planet. The country's rich biodiversity is primarily due to its varied climatic zones and diverse geographical features. Nepal heavily relies on its wide range of animals and plants to attract numerous travelers to its borders.

Whether you're embarking on a wildlife expedition, enjoying a homestay trek, or planning a hike in Nepal's national parks or conservation areas, you'll undoubtedly encounter the diverse spectrum of Nepal's plant and animal life. As you venture through Nepal's lush forests, you'll encounter an array of species, from the captivating Lophophorus to the elusive Royal Bengal Tiger, the endangered One-Horned Rhino to the remarkable Snow Leopard, and an extensive variety of bird species. Your exploration of Nepal's flora and fauna is a truly enriching experience that allows you to witness the country's natural wonders up close.

Nepal's protected regions span across a vast area of 147,181 square kilometers, encompassing a range of landscapes, including the Terai grasslands, the foothills of the Nepal Himalayas, and the ecological zones of the hilly regions. Nepal's elevation varies from a mere 70 meters to the towering height of 8,848 meters. This extensive altitudinal gradient has given rise to a total of 11 distinct bio-climatic zones, ranging from the tropical zone below 500 meters to the polar zone above 5,000 meters in the Himalayas. Botanists have identified a remarkable 5,160 species of flowering plants and 1,120 species of non-flowering plants, while zoologists have documented 181 mammal species, 100 reptile species, 844 bird species, 43 terrestrial and amphibian species, 635 butterfly species, and 185 fish species in this diverse and vibrant country.

Table of Contents

Different Flora and Fauna Found in Nepal

The creature and birds of Nepal are generally seen in the forests. The greater part of the birds is seen in the mountain region. The plants offer the occupant to the human. The individual influences no harm from these.

There is a various assortment of Flora and Fauna encountered in Nepal. You can explore the rare flora and fauna of Nepal for various purposes as they can be investigated either for research or entertainment purposes. 


On the planet, vegetation is very different from one region to another. In the mountain region, the plant is pleasant to imagine, and it acquires the cold season. It is widely found inside the mountain region at cut-off cold.

In Terai, the climate is sweltering because of that temperature, and the place is persistent. Thus, because of this normal behavior, various types of trees are found in the Terai locale. In a chilly climate, the orange is refined.

The shocking bloom is found in the district for embellishing the home by a singular arrangement of decisions and with our choice by acting great. Verdure comes from a flower that could be a reference to the plant. Plants unfurl it wherever all over the planet. Greenery concentrate on the study of science book, the word is the return from it to see wherever the globe. It's normal and indicated by God.

Medicinal Plants

Plants accessible in the upper Himalayas have incredible restorative worth; its importance is featured as Ayurveda in the thousand years of age Hindu stories. A significant number of the conventional practices (Ayurvedic, Homeopathic, Amchi, and so on) include the utilization of Himalayan plants to recuperate. Nowadays, even the allopathic medications are ready from those species. 

Flora with its medicinal benefit is mostly found in the Himalayan region or upper part of Nepal. Himalayan Flora is used for significant conventional practices like Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Amchi, and many more.  They are even used for allopathic medicine preparation. 

Nepal is enriched with a few rare florae and some common species that can be found over the world. 
A few  species found in Nepal that  are commonly found:  
Aloe Vera, Asparagus, Calamus, Yarsagumba, cinnamon, dry ginger, Neem, Tulsi, and Zanthoxylum armatum are a portion of the ordinarily known spices. This is only a minuscule piece of the complete remedial spices found in Nepal.

A portion of the plant species found in Nepal is extremely interesting on the planet. Here are some of them:

Spikenard (Jatamasi)

It is a pink and white shaded flower with intertwined hairs of the root. It can be found in the excessive areas of Nepal (3000m to 5000m asl),  it stands apart from the rest of the others. These roots are used to prepare fragrant oil, which is additionally used for the treatment of cholera, epilepsy, and heart sicknesses. The National Authority of Nepal has restricted the export of Spikenard.

Serpentina (Sarpagandha)

The flower of Serpentina (Sarpagandha) are red and white shaded and look similar to Jatamasi. It can be spotted at a height of around 1200m while it is additionally found in the lower Terai district. Even though its flower does not carry medicinal properties but its root is beneficial for the treatment of diarrhea, Insomnia,  Dysentry, Blood pressure, Worm, and many more.  

Himalayan Yew (Lauth salla)

Himalayan Yew has a leaf-like comb, it can be found at the height of 1700m-3400m. It is used for the preparation of medication for neurological disorders, headaches, heart diseases, diarrhea, respiration, and many more. This plant is around 8 m long. Turning out to be super beneficial for the survivors of cancer is likewise accepted.

Cordyceps (Yarsagumba)

It is an exceptionally found plant. It is rich in therapeutic value which makes it one of the most sought species all over the world.  It is around 5 to 8 cm long and is found in the body of a caterpillar and falls under the group of fungi. It is used for the treatment of heart illness and mental treatment. It is against the law to trade this species and, maybe, given its significant expense, it is illicitly smuggled.


The enormous scope of fauna is found on the world's surface and they are a large portion. It's found owing 
seen as inferable from enduring. 'cryptofauna' is the arrangement of scant creatures and it's mythological.

There's furthermore the 'megafauna' that is the enormous creature we will more often than not look at inside the wilderness normally. Earth is the best spot to measure.


Combining every animal category from Lower-Terai to Upper-Himalayas, there are 185 types of mammals found in Nepal: Asiatic Elephant, one-horned Rhinoceros, and Royal Bengal Tiger are the rulers of Terai's tropical wildernesses, while monkey, langurs, panther, hyena, Jackal, wild pig, wolf, gazelle, sloth bear, spotted deer yelping deer actually stand firm on a good situation. In the eastern forest of Koshi-Tappu, wild bison (also known as Arna) is praised; in the western Suklaphanta natural life save, overwhelmed deer allures the backwoods with enchantment. For the conservation of blackbucks, the Government of Nepal has announced an area of 15.95 sq. km as the Blackbucks Conservation Area in Bardia of Nepal.

Likewise, Nepal has one of the distinctive assortments of Dolphins (Ganges) in the river of Karnali and Narayani. Before 2009, these dolphins should have been visible whenever in these waterways. Be that as it may, after an overwhelming flood-hit in those waterways, dolphin glimpse has become extremely rare. Similarly, the elusive snow leopard of the Himalayan region and the timid red panda are million-dollar glances. The commonly rambling wildlife of the Himalayas is the Yak, Himalayan Tahr, Blue Sheep, and so on. Hunting of Himalayan Tahr and Blue Sheep is permitted in the forest of Dhorpatan (the major Hunting Reserve of the country).


Wide assortments of reptiles get by like Nepal. Among them, fish-eating Gharial and omnivorous swamp mugger are the imperiled native types of crocodile tracked down wild in Nepal. While the Gharial has a long and pointed nose, Marsh muggers are expansively snouted. They play in the muddy water and look dirty. Snakes, then again, are especially alluring with their brilliant outlook. Some of them are Cobras, Kraits, Vipers, and Indian Python. Indeed, Lizards are no special case for what this nation has to offer. Turtles and monitor Lizards are a lot wild in the Chitwan National Park and Bardia National Park.


Nepal is home to over 887 types of birds. These assortments of bird species reside in over 37 significant Bird and Biodiversity Areas of Nepal. In the variety of climatic zones and dramatic landscape of Nepal dwells numerous rare, flawless, and dynamic bird species. Rare species like Impeyan Pheasant, Crimson Horned Pheasant, and so forth sing and dance in the Himalayas. Likewise, an endemic species like the bird Spiny Babbler is tracked down just in the hilly region of Nepal. Similarly, the forests of terai feel revitalized with the murmuring of vultures.

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